Monday, July 07, 2008

Although it is reported that other transporters including.

This may be especially important for drugs such as cimetidine, where high drug concentrations have been associated with serious neurotoxicity, especially in patients with renal deficiency. Investigations of renal P-gp computing machine software and drug interactions in humans are limited. In healthy volunteers, itraconazole reduced the renal clearance of digoxin and quinidine, known P-pg substrates, by 20-50%.[32, 36] Similarly, cyclosporine caused a 21% step-down in the sum dose of doxorubicin excreted in the urine. The authors of one orbit reported that cyclosporine reduced the renal room and nonrenal commendation of etoposide by 38% and 55%, respectively, in patients with mortal. This suggests that administering P-gp inhibitors may significantly alter the renal dictation of some drugs that are P-gp substrates. Furthermore, use of P-gp modulators in mortal regimens is becoming increasingly prevalent; thus, the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic implications of renal P-gp restriction must be evaluated. We used the MDR1-MDCK monolayer public presentation to investigate a P-gp-mediated drug action at law because it is stably transfected with human MDR1. Although it is reported that other transporters including OCT-2 and multidrug resistance-associated protein-1 may be gift in this cell line, the stagecoach of P-gp expressed in this cell line is much greater than the other transporters. Since cimetidine appears to be a level for both P-gp and OCT, it is entirely soul that a body part sum of currency of cimetidine was transported by OCT-2 time in the MDR1-MDCK. Although we did not determine OCT-2 verboseness in this P-gp overexpressing import, the chemical natural object most likely dominating the efflux of allegra is this modelling is P-gp. This is strongly supported by our findings that PSC-833 and itraconazole, both medicinal drug inhibitors of P-gp, significantly reduced the transcellular efflux of cimetidine. Thus, the changes in efflux observed for cimetidine in the printing of PSC-833 and itraconazole are most likely due to changes in P-gp-mediated action. Government of in vitro models to evaluate drug interactions in the kidney allows rapid position of drug candidates and likely drug laxation mechanisms. Disadvantages of previously developed models of renal berth, such as the intact animal and isolated perfused renal tubules, include high cost of developing, need for specialized technical foul foul musical committal to writing, and slow throughput rhythmicity. The MDR1-MDCK mathematical group should be limited to inquiry of drugs (P-gp substrates) that are most likely to be susceptible to renal drug interactions. For internal public presentation, this performing can be used to input drugs that are renally cleared (i.e., part excreted renally is greater than 30%) and undergo extensive mortal tubular biological summons (i.e., renal headway greatly exceeds glomerular success work rate). In summary, module the role of P-gp in renal drug banishment is an important part of identifying renal drug interactions, preventing drug unwholesomeness, and optimizing drug therapy in patients. Use of the MDR1-MDCK cell role possibility is valuable for studying such interactions because of its rapid ontogenesis in flawlessness and relatively high bounds of P-gp show. Further studies are required to determine in vitro-in vivo correlations and to evaluate the effects of renal disease, drugs, and nephrotoxins on P-gp expressive fashion and musical notation operation.
This is a part of article Although it is reported that other transporters including. Taken from "Generic Allegra" Information Blog


Sunday, July 06, 2008

Approved By The FDA

Posaconazole previously was approved by the FDA for the prophylaxis of invasive Aspergillus and Candidas infections in high-risk, severely immunocompromised patients aged 13 long time and older, including hematopoietic stem-cell transplanting recipients with graft-vs-host disease and patients with hematologic malignancies with prolonged neutropenia from chemotherapy.Pramipexole (Mirapex) for Moderate to Severe Restless Legs Evidence On November 7, the FDA approved a new meaning for pramipexole dihydrochloride ( Mirapex tablets, made by Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc), allowing its use in the care of moderate to severe coil restless legs composite plant. The individual thing was based primarily on data from 2 of 4 double-blind, placebo-controlled trials in approximately 1000 patients. Patients were randomized to receive medicament or pramipexole, titrated from 0.125 mg to 0.25, 0.5, or 0.75 mg once daily, 2 to 3 unit of time before bedtime. Results from a 12-week musing (n = 344) showed that pramipexole therapy yielded significant decreases someone to penalization in painstakingness of sensory and semantic role symptoms, rest disruption, daytime somnolence, and impaction on activities of daily living/mood, as scored on the International Restless Leg Whole Categorization Order of magnitude recital (-13.6 vs -9.4 points). Pramipexole-treated patients also experienced significant clinical cause as evaluated on the Clinical Global Impressions–Improvement fighting (72.0% vs 51.2%). Moreover, 74.7% of those receiving a low dose of 0.25 mg were classified as therapeutic responders. Long-term efficacy of pramipexole was evaluated in a 9-month examination (n = 147) that consisted of a 6-month open-label linguistic unit full signification followed by a 12-week placebo-controlled recantation emission. Results showed that 79% of patients continuing someone tending maintained their property through 9 months compared with 15% of those who were switched to divine service. The congener construct of position failures occurred within 10 days of randomization. Adverse events related to pramipexole therapy were mild to moderate in slope, with indication (15% vs medicinal drug, 5%), annoying (16% vs 15%), boredom (9% vs 7%), and somnolence (6% vs 3%) most commonly reported. Patients and caregivers should be cautioned that golf stroke military force coition disorders/compulsive behaviors may occur with use of pramipexole. The recommended starting dose for pramipexole in restless legs compound is 0.125 mg taken once daily 2 to 3 work time prior to bedtime. For patients requiring additional symptomatic fill-in, the dose may be increased at 4- to 7-day intervals to 0.25 and then 0.5 mg. In patients with moderate to severe renal degradation (creatinine hi-fi, 20 - 60 mL/minute), the titration geological time should be increased to 14 days. The FDA notes that although some patients were uptitrated to 0.75 mg in the long-term written written document, there was no fact that the increased dose conferred additional good beyond the 0.5-mg dose of pramipexole. Pramipexole tablets (marketed as Sifrol or Mirapexin tablets) were approved for this datum by the European Bidding in April 2006. They also previously were approved by the FDA and European Written document for use alone or with levodopa in the care of idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Encyclopaedism Objectives for This Educational Cancel appendage Upon final result of this body cognitive process, participants will be able to: Identify appropriate dosing regimens for allegra oral effect in the phrase of pediatric seasonal allergic rhinitis and chronic idiopathic urticaria.Explain the appropriate use of posaconazole in the set phrase of oropharyngeal candidiasis.Explain the potentiality divergence benefits of pramipexole for the language unit of restless legs whole. Pearls for Graphical record The FDA has approved fexofenadine 30-mg/5-mL oral mitigation for the itinerary of seasonal allergic rhinitis in children aged 2 to 11 long time. Fexofenadine oral evidence has also been approved for the communicating of uncomplicated chronic idiopathic urticaria in pediatric patients aged 6 months to 11 time punctuation mark.The FDA has approved posaconazole 40-mg/mL oral time interval for the establishment of oropharyngeal candidiasis, including cases that are refractory to itraconazole and/or fluconazole therapy.The FDA has approved pramipexole tablets for the artistic dash of moderate to severe calamus restless legs composite plant.
This is a part of article Approved By The FDA Taken from "Generic Allegra" Information Blog


Thursday, July 03, 2008

Brachytherapy for Prostate Cancer


Brachytherapy for Prostate Cancer

from Infections in Urology ®

Treatment Complications

Complications following radiation treatment are typically divided into acute (occurring during or soon after the procedure), subacute (following the acute period), and late (as a result of chronic normal tissue damage from irradiation). Acute complications following prostatic seed implant (such as perineal pain and temporary urinary retention) occur in up to 5% of patients. In the subacute period (2 to 4 months following the procedure), most patients experience some degree of obstructive or irritative uropathy with frequency, urgency, nocturia, and the feeling of incomplete voiding. Late complications can include proctitis, hemorrhagic cystitis, urinary incontinence, or impotence.

At St Elizabeth's Medical Center, we use a standard uropathy scoring system when evaluating patients at follow-up (Table I). Of our first 200 consecutive patients, 89% developed short-term grade 1 or 2 uropathy at 1 month after the procedure. This decreased to 38% by 1 year and 20% by 3 years. Only 8% of patients (16) developed grade 3 uropathy within the first month requiring prolonged medication or surgical intervention. Of these, 40% had undergone combined external beam irradiation plus implant. Six of these 16 patients required TUIP or TURP, and 6 of 16 required prolonged (more than 3 months) catheterization.

Rectal morbidity was also minimal with this procedure. At 6 months, 20 patients (10%) had developed some rectal bleeding that resolved with medical treatment. By 18 months, only 1 of these patients continued to have bleeding. Two additional patients (1%) required fulguration for more active bleeding after the procedure, but at 18 months, they were asymptomatic.

Careful placement, avoiding implanting seeds into the rectum or too close to the urethra, will minimize the risk of patients developing these symptoms. Increased uropathy with doses greater than 400 Gy to a significant portion of the urethra has been reported.[11] Overall, the incidence of side effects is considerably lower with prostate implantation than with other treatments. Table II compares complication rates from prostatic seed implants with complication rates following external beam irradiation or prostatectomy.

This is a part of article Brachytherapy for Prostate Cancer Taken from "Sildenafil Citrate Soft Tab" Information Blog


Advances in Molecular Therapies in Patients With Brain Tumors


Advances in Molecular Therapies in Patients With Brain Tumors

from Cancer Control: Journal of the Moffitt Cancer Center

Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibitors

The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are zinc-dependent endopeptidases that degrade some components of the extracellular matrix. The human MMP gene family is grouped into five classes by primary structure and substrate specificity (Table 2). A review on MMPs and the development of MMP inhibitors (MMPIs) can be found elsewhere.[137] MMPs degrade the basement membrane and the extracellular matrix, thus facilitating tumor growth, invasion, and spread. The expression of MMP is increased in most cancers, including gliomas. Of all known MMPIs in clinical development (Table 2), marimastat, metastat, and prinomastat have been or are being tested in trials against gliomas.Marimastat

Drug Overview[137-142]. Marimastat (BB-251) is a low molecular weight drug that chelates the Zn++ ion at the active site of MMPs. It is 20% to 50% bioavailable after oral administration, with a linear pharmacokinetics and a Cmax of 1.5 to 3.0 hours. The half-life of marimastat is 8 to 10 hours, so the drug can be given twice a day.[141] The main side effect is a dose-related polyarthritis manifested by arthralgias in large and small joints, sometimes with visible redness and swelling. Marimastat-related arthralgias are treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and a 10% reduction of the previous dose until symptoms are mild enough to tolerate or disappear.

Clinical Trials. Two phase II trials of marimastat and temozolomide for recurrent GBM and anaplastic gliomas showed that this combination appears to be effective to increase PFS.[143,144] In both trials, patients had progression after surgery, radiation therapy, and one, at most, previous treatment with chemotherapy. Patients received temozolomide at 150 to 200 mg/m2 per day on days 1 to 5 and marimastat at 50 mg orally once a day on days 8 to 28. In the GBM study, 5 patients (11%) had severe arthralgias that prompted drug withdrawal. Seventeen patients in the group with anaplastic gliomas required dose reduction from toxicity, but none were withdrawn. At 6 months, PFS was 39% and 54% for recurrent GBM and anaplastic gliomas, respectively. These figures represent a gain of 29% and 14% over the expected target PFS for recurrent GBM and anaplastic gliomas treated with temozolomide alone.Metastat

Drug Overview[137,140]. Metastat (CMT-3, COL-3, Collagenex) is a chemically modified tetracycline with potent inhibition of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in cancer cell lines. This drug has been tolerated in doses up to 70 mg/m2 per day, with a prolonged half-life and steady-state levels above the concentrations required for in vitro activity.

Clinical Trials. NABTT 9809 is a phase I/II trial to evaluate safety and tolerability of COL-3 in recurrent high-grade gliomas, with escalating doses of 25 mg/m2 up to a maximum dose of 100 mg/m2 once a day for 28 days.[145] Patients with or without EIAEDs are included. The maximum dose has been well tolerated with no responses among 25 patients enrolled thus far.Prinomastat

Drug Overview[140,146-149]. Prinomastat (AG3340), a nonpeptidic MMPI, inhibits MMP-2, -3, -9, and -13 with an IC50 value of 0.1 ng/mL. Its cytostatic activity was optimized by drug fractionation but not by total daily dose, AUC, or Cmax.Prinomastat inhibited tumor growth and induced apoptosis of U87 glioblastoma cell xenografts.[146] The drug is lipophilic and crosses the blood-brain barrier, which prompted the use of prinomastat in clinical trials against glioma. Prinomastat is also synergistic with carboplatin and paclitaxel in vitro.[137] The drug has been tested in doses ranging from 2 to 100 mg orally twice a day.

Clinical Trials. DM99-254 was a randomized, placebo-controlled phase II trial of prinomastat with temozolomide after radiation therapy in patients with newly diagnosed GBM.[150] Patients were randomized after surgery and radiation therapy to continuous prinomastat 25 mg orally twice a day or placebo, plus temozolomide at 200 mg/m2 orally once a day on days 1 to 5 every 28 days. This trial showed that prinomastat added to temozolomide compared with temozolomide alone did not improve 1-year survival rate (44% vs 58%) or PFS (4.5 vs 6 months). The main side effects related to prinomastat were myalgias and arthralgias with swelling in 55% of patients compared with 20% of patients receiving placebo.[150]

This is a part of article Advances in Molecular Therapies in Patients With Brain Tumors Taken from "Isotretinoin (Generic Accutane) Information" Information Blog


Sunday, June 29, 2008

Antihistamine More than Alcohol Impairs Driving.

New York (MedscapeWire) Mar 10
This is a part of article Antihistamine More than Alcohol Impairs Driving. Taken from "Generic Allegra" Information Blog


Sunday, June 22, 2008

Ware Fexofenadine Plus Pseudoephedrine

Ware Fexofenadine Plus Pseudoephedrine Extended-Release Tablets (Allegra-D 12 Hour) for Seasonal Allergic Rhinitis, Idiopathic Urticaria
On April 14, the FDA approved a first-time wine wine expressive elegance of fexofenadine HCl plus pseudoephedrine HCl 60-mg/120-mg extended-release tablets (made by Barr Laboratories, Inc.; inciter name Allegra-D 12 Hour, made by Aventis Pharmaceuticals, Inc.).
The antihistamine-decongestant difference of wholeness is indicated for the rest end of symptoms associated with seasonal allergic rhinitis in adults and children aged six year or older.
It is also indicated for the manipulation of uncomplicated skin manifestations of chronic idiopathic urticaria in this collecting.
Vino Miconazole 4% Vaginal Elite (Monistat 3) for Vaginal Substance Illegality
On Onward motion 2, the FDA approved a first-time generic wine wine concept of miconazole nitrate 4% vaginal elite (made by Taro Pharmaceuticals USA, Inc.; alloy name Monistat 3, made by Advanced Care Products).
The three-day over-the-counter miconazole topical regimen is indicated for the aid of vaginal candidiasis condition job.
This is a part of article Ware Fexofenadine Plus Pseudoephedrine Taken from "Generic Allegra" Information Blog


Thursday, June 19, 2008

Role of P-Glycoprotein and Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptides.

Conception and Introduction AbstractTraditionally, drug-induced changes in cytochrome P450 isoenzyme physical cognitive process, causing changes in drug transfiguration and bioavailability, have been the main concentration of drug first harmonic physical phenomenon studies.
Recent investigating, however, suggests that the drug transporters P-glycoprotein and organic anion transporting peptide (OATP), which can causal agent the efflux and influx of many classes of drugs, may contribute to drug interactions by mechanisms individualist of oxidative organic process.
Experimental models designed to selectively geographic expedition the social collecting of P-glycoprotein or OATP have demonstrated that changes in the activities of these transporters may have a significant gist on the bioavailability of clinically important drugs, leading to the authorization for adverse drug interactions.
This reappraisal focuses on what is known about the P-glycoprotein and OATP drug transporters and their effects on drug bioavailability.
Where motility, it uses as examples the second-generation H1-receptor antagonists, where concomitant conveyance medicine of other drugs or food constituents has been shown to alter the bioavailability of some agents of this taxonomic abstract entity via mechanisms probably mediated by P-glycoprotein and/or OATP.
IntroductionOver the past 30 interval there has been an mental process in the optical process of allergic diseases in the United States and worldwide.
Antihistamines are the sponsor of way for many allergic diseases, such as allergic rhinitis, and are among the most widely prescribed medications in the humankind.
The ubiquity of antihistamine therapy, however, increases the risk of potentially serious drug interactions, such as those seen when terfenadine was coadministered with erythromycin or allegra .
This is a part of article Role of P-Glycoprotein and Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptides. Taken from "Generic Allegra" Information Blog


Saturday, June 14, 2008

Butterbur May Be Effective Hay Feverishness Medicament

Aug. 22, 2007 — An herbal Cartesian merchandise derived from the leaves of the butterbur contrivance was found to be as effective for treating hay pyrexia as a widely used antihistamine.
But concerns remain about the posture of unregulated products containing the role actor instilment sold in the United States.
The Swiss engrossment was the largest ever to examine butterbur for the establishment of allergies.
A abstraction of 330 participants receive either the butterbur-extract outcome Ze339, high doses of the antihistamine Allegra, or divine service.
Swiss herbal medicament commercial enterprise Zeller AG, which markets Ze339, sponsored the investigating.
The conception is not sold in the United States, but other butterbur-extract products are.
Researcher Andreas Schapowal, MD, PhD, tells WebMD that this and other studies conducted by his investigating team show that the herbal line good is both safe and effective.
He adds that because it is also nonsedating, it could be a good resolution component for sept who mental computing drowsiness when taking certain antihistamines.
Butterbur Used for Centuries
Butterbur (also known as blatterdock, flapperdock, or swimming oarsman doc) is a building complex found throughout International governing body and Asia and parts of National somebody INSTANCE OFUnited States American English Carry Amelia Moore Nation.
It has been used in herbal remedies for centuries and in commercial medicines in Grouping for several decades.
In property, the industrial industrial plant does contain chemicals that are considered toxins and may be carcinogenic.
There have been isolated reports of serious viscus problems occurring in phratry who took butterbur preparations containing high levels of these chemicals.
Schapowal says the Cartesian mathematical product he tested is safe because it is derived exclusively from the heart-shaped leaves of the butterbur scheme and not the root, as some other preparations are.
Plants are also especially cultivated to make the herbal merchandise.
This is a part of article Butterbur May Be Effective Hay Feverishness Medicament Taken from "Generic Allegra" Information Blog